Análisis motivacional del uso del Smartphone en estudiantes universitarios ecuatorianos. Acercamiento a la Teoría de Usos y Gratificaciones

Edwin Andrés García Umaña

Resumen


El Smartphone es utilizado asiduamente en toda la población, especialmente en adolescentes y jóvenes; las necesidades comunicativas o psicológicas personales permiten que se arraiguen de manera intrínseca en la sociedad. Aquello ha permitido el análisis de bases motivacionales para identificar el crecimiento de un fenómeno perenne. El objetivo de la investigación es describir las gratificaciones descritas por Katz, Blumler y Gurevitch (1974) que provoca el uso constante del dispositivo móvil en estudiantes universitarios del Ecuador, utilizando un instrumento con garantías de validación. El estudio aplicado en la Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador involucra una población de 313 estudiantes (49% mujeres, 51% hombres). Las dimensiones descritas del análisis factorial exploratorio (α=.88) son: a) acceso a la información y comunicación, b) evasión y c) relevancia social. Y son los estudiantes varones quienes demuestran más intención de usabilidad y continuidad al aumento de distracción digital y evasión.

Palabras clave: adicción, smartphone, teoría de usos y gratificaciones.

Motivational analysis of the use of the Smartphone in Ecuadorian university students: Approach to the Theory of Uses and Gratifications.

The Smartphone assiduously used throughout the population especially adolescents and young people; personal communicative or psychological needs allow them to take root intrinsically in society. That permitted the analysis of motivational bases to identify the growth of a perennial phenomenon. The objective of the research is to describe the perks described by Katz, Blumler and Gurevitch (1974) which provoke the constant use of the mobile device in university students in Ecuador, by applying an instrument with validation guarantees. The study applied at Pontificia Universidad Católica del Ecuador, involved a population of 313 students (49% women, 51% men). The described dimensions of the exploratory factor analysis (α = .88) are: a) access to information and communication, b) evasion, and c) social relevance. And it is the male students who demonstrate more intent of usability and continuity to the increase of digital distraction and evasion.

Keywords: addiction, smartphone, uses and gratifications theory.


Palabras clave


Adicción, smartphone; teoría de usos y gratificaciones.

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Referencias


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